Flies are a major health risk.

They are vectors of a large number of diseases and organisms. Among the diseases carried are anthrax, gastro-enteritis, dysentery, typhoid, polio, salmonella and tuberculosis. Numerous bristles on the flies lags are responsible for collecting and distributing germ laden particles wherever they go.

In warmer areas, breeding continues throughout the year. Eggs are laid in moist decaying vegetable matter
and animal waste.

The complete metamorphosis
cycle can be as short as 7-9 days in ideal conditions:
Eggs to Maggots         8-24 hours
Maggots to Pupa        4-5 days
Pupa to Adult Fly      2-7 days

Adult flies normally live 1-3 months.
Flies are great travellers, up to 32 km recorded
Flies can over-winter in larval, pupa and adult stages.

Flies are active by day, resting up by night.
Maggots are cannibalistic and destroy large numbers of each other.
Eggs and maggots, if swallowed, can cause intestinal injuries
Flies are a very important part of the food chain.
Predators include wasps, spiders, birds, bats, frogs, fish and lizards.
Prior to feeding, flies often vomit onto their food matter and trample it in, to dissolve tissue to a liquid before sucking it up.

Do you want to know more about Fly control. click  How To Control Flies.

Common Fly Species.

Common housefly (Musca domestica) Adults are 6-8mm long, with a wingspan of 13-15mm; the thorax is grey with four

longitudinal dark stripes; the sides of
the abdomen are yellowish and may be transparent; the larva also known as a maggot – undergoes larval moults, gradually increasing in size and changing colour from white to cream; pupa is about 6mm long and may be yellow, brown or black. Houseflies are potential vectors of a wide range of diseases such as dysentery, gastroenteritis and tuberculosis
and can also transmit intestinal worms. These flies move from filth to food indiscriminately and may therefore move pathogens from dirty to clean areas. Fly spotting is produced when feeding and defecating.

Lesser housefly (Fannia canicularis)

Adults are 5-6mm long, with a wingspan of 10-12mm and with a grey thorax, which has three indistinct longitudinal stripes on it; the abdomen has an extensive area of yellow at
its base. Potential vectors of a wide range of diseases, such as dysentery, gastroenteritis and tuberculosis, they can also transmit intestinal worms. As with the housefly they may
move pathogens from dirty to clean areas.
Fly spotting is produced when feeding and defecating.

Blowflies (Calliphora spp)

Adults are 9-13mm long with a wingspan of 18-20mm; adults are large robust flies with a stout abdomen; the thorax and abdomen are black/blue and dusky in colour. Blow flies are attracted to rotting animal remains on which they lay their eggs. In their search, they can mistake stored meat as a suitable ‘host’. The possibility of disease spread is similar to the housefly.

Flesh fly (Sarcophaga carnaria)

Adults are 10-18mm long with a wingspan
of about 22mm; they are bristly grey with three distinct black stripes on the thorax; the abdomen has checkered patterning, which changes according to the angle of view. The hind end of the larva is rounded and the posterior spiracles are sunk into a deep pit surrounded by fleshy lobes. Flesh flies exploit decaying organic matter for larval feeding sites, for example, rotten meat, open wounds, dung and carrion and they will also parasitise insect larvae and molluscs. They can also utilise

stored meat as a larviposition site. Carcasses of birds and rodents are used by these flies
as food sources for their larvae and therefore adults may be encountered as a nuisance in houses, though they are rarely found indoors in normal circumstances.

Fruit flies (Drosophila spp)

Adult fruit flies are small, yellowish/brown with a darkly striped abdomen; they have prominent compound eyes that are generally red in colour, although darker variants occur; the wings have two clear notches in the front border, which can clearly be seen with a hand lens. Fruit flies are commonly associated with human food preparation and storage areas. They are a source of annoyance in many kitchens, restaurants, etc. They are attracted to alcohol and waste fruit, and can build up to very large numbers when these food/breeding materials are present.

Moth flies (Family Psychodidae)

Adults are 3-4mm long with a wingspan of 10-12mm; they are greyish/brown in colour with wings covered in scales, as is the whole body, giving the fly the appearance of a small moth; the antennae of the moth flies are hairy in appearance with large hairs emanating from the intersegmental junctions. The adult flies are frequently abundant in sewage works. Females lay their eggs in a suitable medium, typically the wet organic matter found in drains. In a kitchen/food processing area these flies are often found breeding in the slime layer in floor traps. As flies are breeding in such areas, there is a possibility that they can transfer bacterial particles. These flies are really only a nuisance pest and not of any great public health significance.

Phorid flies / Scuttle flies (Family Phoridae)

Adults are 3-4mm long with a wingspan of 9-10mm; the thorax is usually dark brown/
tan in colour with a distinctive humped appearance. Phorid flies are found in association with moist decaying organic matter. They are often indicative of blocked or broken drainage systems. The adult flies have a characteristic habit of scuttling in a fast run instead of immediately taking to wing when disturbed, hence their name ‘scuttle flies’. Because they frequent unsanitary sites, there is always the potential of these insects carrying disease-causing bacteria.

From ‘Pest control procedures in the food industry ‘ Chartered Institute Of Health

Do you want to know more about Fly control. click  How To Control Flies.

 

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